Bridge Applications Manual
The Bridge Applications Manual is intended to be the primary source of information on the detailing and management practices of the Wyoming Department of Transportation's Bridge Program. Other sources of information may need to be consulted. For uniformity and consistency of the final set of plans, the methods and practices stated in this manual should be followed, unless special conditions warrant otherwise.
This manual is a guide for the preparation of common structural projects and because of the many variations possible in plan preparation, literal conformation may not be feasible. In these applications, sound engineering judgment must be used.
Individual chapters or sections can be downloaded below.
Title Sheet and Table of Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction and General Information
Chapter 2 - CADD Drafting Standards
Chapter 3 - Standard Sheets and Cells
Chapter 3 - Standard Sheets and Cells(19.07 KB)A standard sheet is a partially to fully detailed sheet requiring minimal editing. These sheets should be used whenever possible. A cell is a collection of elements that have been grouped together to form a symbol, pattern, or picture. A cell is generally text and/or graphic elements that are used repeatedly.Chapter 3 - Appendix A - Standard Sheet List(13.95 KB)Chapter 3 - Appendix B - Cell List(17.65 KB)
Chapter 4 - Bridge Program Drawings
Introduction(27.55 KB)Chapter 4 is intended to familiarize Bridge Program personnel with the various detail sheets produced by the program. In producing a complete set of structural details, a variety of sheet types are required.Section 4.01 - Preliminary(250.89 KB)Once the location, site characteristics, and hydraulic requirements have been determined, the new structure type and size can be established and a Structure Selection Report is written. This section describes the layouts needed for new and rehabilitated structures.Section 4.01 - Checklist(97.34 KB)Section 4.01 - Examples(1.26 MB)Section 4.02 - General Notes(543.9 KB)The purpose of the Title Sheet and General Notes Sheet is to provide information important to the design, detailing, and construction of Bridge Program projects not covered in the Special Provisions, Supplementary Specifications, Standard Plans, or Standard Specifications. The Title Sheet and General Notes Sheet include General Notes, Estimated Quantities, Index of Drawings, Stream Data, Design Data, and References.Section 4.02 - Appendix A - General Notes(353.53 KB)Section 4.02 - Appendix B - Design Data Notes(53.56 KB)Section 4.02 - Examples(817.59 KB)Section 4.03 - General Plan and Elevation(86.67 KB)General Plan and Elevation details (GP&E) accurately describe a structure in its final form. All new bridges require a GP&E, as well as bridge widenings, hydraulic structures, retaining walls, and some maintenance projects.Section 4.03 - Checklist(16.06 KB)Section 4.03 - Examples(169.97 KB)Section 4.04 - Substructure Layout(73.23 KB)Substructure Layout details accurately describe the location of bridge footings, pilings, and drilled shaft foundations. All new bridges, bridge widenings, and some maintenance projects require a Substructure Layout.Section 4.04 - Checklist(13.86 KB)Section 4.04 - Examples(120.36 KB)Section 4.05 - Riprap and Gabions(30.82 KB)Riprap is a layer of stones on an embankment slope used to prevent erosion and to protect the structure from the effects of stream flow. Riprap is used in various situations on ditch banks, channel bottoms, berm slopes, or any area where erosion is to be prevented. The most common types of riprap used are gabion baskets, machine placed riprap, wire enclosed riprap, or hand placed riprap.Section 4.05 - Checklist(13.72 KB)Section 4.05 - Examples(328.07 KB)Section 4.06 - Geology(24.66 KB)The Log Boring Sheet contains information critical to the design and construction of a structure. Subsurface information logged by the Geology Program is included in a summary of laboratory test data. This data, along with a Geology Report, is utilized by the Bridge Program for the design of foundations to support structural loads. Detailing of the Log Boring Sheet is generally done by Geology Program personnel.Section 4.06 - Examples(1.02 MB)Section 4.07 - Abutments(118.47 KB)Abutments are the support elements connecting the ends of the bridge to the roadway. Abutments serve to prevent erosion, retain the backfill to a desirable spill slope, keep the soil from coming in contact with the bearings, and transfer the bridge loads to the foundation. There are numerous configurations of abutments; however, the most commonly used are cap, spill-through, sill, or full retaining types of abutments. To retain the fill, wingwalls are attached to the abutment as either sweptback or, most commonly, elephant ear.Section 4.07 - Checklist(14.96 KB)Section 4.07 - Examples(312.71 KB)Section 4.08 - Bent/Pier(72.18 KB)Bents and piers are the intermediate supports for bridges with two or more spans. There are numerous configurations of bents and piers; however, the most commonly used are solid shaft piers and multicolumn bents.Section 4.08 - Checklist(14.77 KB)Section 4.08 - Examples(216.74 KB)Section 4.09 - Superstructure(440.91 KB)The superstructure is the part of the bridge that stabilizes and supports the slab and transfers the traffic load to the bridge substructures. There are numerous types of superstructures; however, the most commonly used are steel girders (rolled beam or welded plate) and prestressed-precast concrete girders.Section 4.09 - Checklist(30.47 KB)Section 4.09 - Examples(546.81 KB)Section 4.10 - Bridge Railing(91.65 KB)Steel bridge railing and concrete bridge barrier rail are installed along the edge of the bridge roadway to keep errant vehicles within the bridge roadway and protect vehicle occupants and pedestrians.Section 4.10 - Appendix A(26.2 KB)Bridge Railing - Multiple Length Post SpacingSection 4.10 - Checklist(7.57 KB)Section 4.10 - Examples(445.4 KB)Section 4.11 - Pedestrian Railing(29.1 KB)Pedestrian railing is installed on the outside edge of a bridge sidewalk/walkway for pedestrian safety.Section 4.11 - Checklist(14.26 KB)Section 4.11 - Examples(244.3 KB)Section 4.12 - Lighting(31.63 KB)Lighting systems are provided for public safety. The Traffic Program will provide the required number and spacing of light standards. Light standard supports on bridges are spaced to provide the optimum illumination. The types of light standard supports used are the Two-U-Bolt Anchorage System and the Four-Bolt Anchorage System. These are cantilevered off the edges of the deck to keep the light standard behind the railing.Section 4.13 - Slab(378.78 KB)The slab, or bridge deck, is the element that provides the finished riding surface for vehicles and distributes loads to the girders. Reinforced concrete slabs are designed according to deck thickness and girder spacing. Concrete curbs, railing, raised medians, sidewalks, girder soffits, and slab supports are placed in conjunction with bridge slabs. Slabs may be curved, skewed, and of various widths and thickness.Section 4.13 - Checklist(17.17 KB)Section 4.13 - Examples(419.3 KB)Section 4.14 - Approach Slabs(104.09 KB)The approach slab is the transition between the approach roadway and the bridge. There are basically two types of approach slabs: concrete or concrete with an asphalt surface. Both types are supported by a corbel, backfill material, and geotextile.Section 4.14 - Checklist(45.4 KB)Section 4.14 - Examples(368 KB)Section 4.15 - Slope Paving and Slope Reinforcing(61.68 KB)Reinforced concrete slope paving or slope reinforcing is applied to the slopes under certain bridges to prevent erosion and to protect the soil around cap-type, spill-through, and sill-type abutments with either sweptback or elephant ear wingwalls. They also improve the overall appearance of the bridge and are often used on, but not limited to, railroad crossings, urban intersections, and rural intersections. In urban areas, slope paving, slope reinforcing or retaining walls shall be applied to the slope whenever one state highway or major public road crosses another state highway or major public road.Section 4.15 - Checklist(10.5 KB)Section 4.16 - Utilities(105.04 KB)Utilities on bridge structures are sometimes the most economical way to span rivers, railroad yards, or impossible topographic areas. The most common types of utilities on bridge structures are telephone, electrical, water, gas, power, and sewer systems. The Utilities Section of the Highway Development Program and the District are responsible for initiating and approving the attachment of utilities to bridge structures. The utilities attachments must also be approved by the State Bridge Engineer.Section 4.17 - Culverts(155.33 KB)A culvert is any structure, except a siphon, that provides an opening under the roadway but does not fall under the classifications of a bridge. Culverts most commonly function as drainage or stockpass structures. A culvert is constructed of either concrete or steel and can be square, round, arched, or elliptical and can consist of single or multiple barrels. The most common types of culverts are cast-in-place reinforced concrete (RC) box culverts, precast concrete box culverts, and metal or concrete pipes. Often an existing culvert must be extended to meet current safety requirements or new roadway width.Section 4.17 - Checklist(19.3 KB)Section 4.17 - Examples(621.86 KB)Section 4.18 - Miscellaneous Hydraulic Structures(41.07 KB)Miscellaneous hydraulic structures include siphons and flumes. Either single or multiple barrel siphons or flumes may be used at a particular location. Historically, smooth steel, corrugated steel, plastic pipe, or concrete pipe is used in the construction of siphons and smooth steel pipe is used in the construction of water transport flumes. Stilling basins, energy dissipators, diversion boxes, and various inlet and outlet structures may be constructed in conjunction with hydraulic structures in order to control and regulate the flow of water. These may vary in size and shape depending on the intended use.Section 4.19 - Reinforcing Steel(1.03 MB)Because concrete has a low tensile strength, reinforcing steel is embedded in the concrete to resist the applied loads causing tension. Compressive reinforcing steel can be used in beams and columns to reduce the size of these members. In addition, reinforcing steel can control strain and subsequent concrete cracking from temperature and shrinkage and distribute applied loads to other reinforcing steel. Reinforcing steel is in the form of bars or wires whose surface may be coated, smooth, or deformed. Deformed bars are generally used because they produce better bond with the concrete due to the raised patterns on the steel. Smooth bars are generally used in welded wire fabric.Section 4.20 - Sign Structures(21.04 KB)Sign structures are designed for mounting directional and variable/dynamic message signs, signal lights, and luminaires over a roadway for the proper flow and control of traffic, and are installed in areas to give the traveling public sufficient advance warning of the physical features for the roadway ahead. The Bridge Program designs these structures when the Traffic Program requests them. The most preferred types of overhead sign structures used are the single-plane sign structure and the monotube sign structure. Space frame truss sign structures may also be used when long spans are required.Section 4.21 - Earth Retaining Structures(61.18 KB)Earth retaining structures are built to hold fill materials in place. These structures may be required when the toe of the soils slope encroaches on the channel bottom, roadway, or right-of-way, or if there is extensive fill to be retained. The most common types of retaining structures used by the Bridge Program are reinforced concrete cantilever walls, reinforced concrete counterforted walls, gabion walls, mechanically stabilized earth walls, and embankment reinforcement systems. The type of structure used depends upon the height of the wall, soil conditions, and the aesthetics of the area.Section 4.21 - Checklist(104.9 KB)Section 4.21 - Examples(363.21 KB)Section 4.22 - Preservation and Rehabilitation.pdf(138.78 KB)Preservation and rehabilitation is an ongoing task performed on structures during their lifetime. Preservation will help maintain current conditions, prevent additional deterioration, and extend the service life of existing bridge elements. Rehabilitation will evaluate existing bridge elements against values for Controlling Design Criteria as shown in the latest version of WYDOT's Design Guide, and identify those in an advanced state of deterioration.Section 4.22 - Checklist.pdf(47.7 KB)Section 4.22 - Examples_1.pdf(12.26 MB)
Chapter 5 - Quantity Calculations
Chapter 5 - Quantities Calculations(585.1 KB)Quantity calculations are computed for each bid item listed in the Table of Estimated Quantities on the Title Sheet. Estimated quantities allow the Bridge Program and other programs to project, track, and justify costs and the amount and type of work to be done through various stages of a project.
Bridge over Wood River(1006.67 KB)Three continuous composite welded plate girder spans supported on cap type abutments and two column bents on drilled shaft foundations.Bridge Over Laramie River(1.27 MB)Three continuous composite welded plate girder spans supported on cap type abutments and solid shaft piers on footings.Bridge over North Laramie River(1.02 MB)Three continuous curved wide flange girder spans supported on cap type abutments and steel pile bents.Bridge over Mill Creek(844.59 KB)Simple span prestressed precast concrete bulb t-girders supported on cap type abutments founded on spread footings.Single 8 x 8 Box Culvert(228.12 KB)Single barrel 8' x 8' cast-in-place reinforced concrete box culvert.Single 20 x 12 Box Culvert(315.04 KB)Single barrel 20' x 12' cast-in-place reinforced concrete box culvert.Single 8 x 8 Precast Box Culvert(334.1 KB)Single barrel 8' x 8' precast reinforced concrete box culvert.Double 9 x 9 Box Culvert Extension(331.76 KB)Double barrel 9' x 9' cast-in-place reinforced concrete box culvert extension.Double 10 x 5 Precast Box Culvert(373.18 KB)Double barrel 10' x 5' precast reinforced concrete box culvert.Modular Block Retaining Wall(133.47 KB)Modular block retaining wall having a maximum height of approximately 15'.Modular Block Retaining Wall (Tiered Wall)(106.7 KB)Two tier, modular block retaining wall used in berm slope at the bridge abutments. Each wall has a height of roughly 17'.Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Retaining Wall(204.9 KB)Reinforced concrete retaining wall having maximum height of approximately 18'.